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The Tethys Ocean

 

Before the Pannonian Sea, the territory of Serbia was covered by the large global ocean of Tethys that separated the two large continents. After strong tectonic movements, the continents began to move closer. Large deformations in the earth's crust caused mountain ranges (Alps, Dinarides ...) to rise from the ocean, and the Tethys Ocean was divided into two sea areas, the Mediterranean (today's Mediterranean Sea) in the south, and the Paratethis Sea, divided into three smaller basins, was formed behind the mountains in the north. Central Paratethys was in today's Central Europe, and its largest basin was the Pannonian, whose southern parts covered parts of Serbia. Climatic changes lead to the melting of continental ice masses. The global sea level dropped and raised even for a few hundred meters. Thus, new continents emerged and shallow seas were formed, such as the Pannonian Sea. By moving the land, the Pannonian Basin finally remained trapped between the mountains. Today’s mountains Fruška Gora, Avala, Povlen, Kosmaj, Cer and Gučevo were at that time islands in the sea that was bustling with life and stretched as far as Kruševac and into the long Great Bay of Morava. In the last collision of the African with the Eurasian continent, Paratethys became smaller and smaller, and in the end it dried up completely.

Praokean Tetis

 

Pre Panonskog mora prostore Srbije je pokrivao veliki svetski okean Tetis i razdvajao dva velika kontinenta. Posle jakih tektonskih pokreta kontinenti su se počeli primicati. Krupne deformacije u zemljinoj kori učinile su da se iz okeana uzdignu planinski venci (Alpi, Dinaridi...), i  okean Tetis podelile na dve morske oblasti, Mediteransko (današnje Sredozemno more) na jugu, a iza planina na severu formirano je more Paratetis podeljeno na tri manja basena. Centralni Paratetis se nalazio na prostorima današnje centralne Evrope a njegov najveći basen bio je Panonski čiji su južni delovi zahvatili delove Srbije. Klimastke promene dovode do topljenja kontinentalnih ledenih masa. Globalni morski nivo spušta se i raste i po nekoliko stotina metara. Tako su se otkrivali novi kontinenti i nastajala plitka mora, kao što je Panonsko more. Pomeranjem zemljišta Panonski basen konačno ostaje zarobljen između planina. Fruška gora, Avala, Povlen, Kosmaj, Cer i Gučevo su bili ostrva iznad mora u kojem je sve vrvelo od života a prostiralo se do Kruševca u dugački Velikomoravski zaliv. U poslednjem sudaru Afričkog sa Evroazijskim kontinentom Paratetis postaje sve manji da bi na kraju potpuno presušio.