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Medicinal Herbs

 

The flora on Poven has not been sufficiently researched and it is estimated that there are about 1000 species of plants. Every year, the meadows are dotted with various plants from spring to autumn. After the winter and its black-and-white phase, the grass breaks through the snow and paints the fields green, and reddish meadow saffron sprouts together with spring flowers such as blagay daphn, the most fragrant flower of the mountain. After that red phase, yellow begins, colored mostly with Saint Ivan’s Day grass, from which the villagers make wreaths and decorate their huts. The most playful colorful phase begins with the summer, and lasts until the beginning of August, when rich meadows are mowed and hay is baled. Here grows narcissus, cowslip, heather, saffron, yellow forest lily, great yellow gentian, Bosnian and Adriatic iris. The fruits of wild strawberries, wild raspberries, blackberries and the most important blueberries, rich in vitamins, iron and tannin, are scattered on the mountain. Blueberry grows as a shrub in the area of Povlen, but it is mostly found in beech forests. Povlen adorns plants of various uses for humans. Some are decorative, some are food and medicine, and some are poisonous. Medicinal herbs that can be found in Povlen are wild garlic, woodruff, asarabacca, yarrow, ground elder, common lady's mantle, agrimony, daisy, shepherd's purse, bellflowers, chicory, leather flower, brown knapweed, carrot, foxgloves, wood spurge, spurges, horsetail, meadowsweets, ground-ivy, hedge bedstraw, lady's bedstraw, common stork's-bill, perforate St John's-wort, horse-heal, field scabiou, oxeye daisy, pennyroyal, lucerne, black medic, oregano, spiny restharrow, broadleaf plantain, creeping cinquefoil, hoary plantain, tormentil, masterwort, buttercups, redvein dock, dog rose, salad burnet, chickweed, mustards,  hedgenettles, dandelion, wall germander, breckland thyme, red clover, nettle, wild pansy, milk thistle, sweet violet and violet. 


Medicinal and poisonous herbs that can be found in meadows of Povlen are cuckoo-pint, greater celandine, fragrant hellebore, autumn crocus… Hemlock is rather poisonous than medicinal. The whole plant and fruit stink unpleasantly, especially in the summer around noon when the it is hot. The ancient philosopher Socrates was sentenced to death by drinking the poison of hemlock. He drank a goblet full of poison easily and without bitterness, and asked those present not to cry and be silent, so that he could "die in pious silence."
 

Lekovito bilje Povlena

Flora na Povenu nije dovoljno istražena i smatra se da postoji oko 1000 vrsta biljaka. Svake godine livade se zašarene raznovrsnim biljkama od proleća do jeseni. Posle zimske crno-bele faze, kroz sneg se probija trava i boji polja u zelenilo, a niče crvenkasti mrazovac i prolećno cveće sve sa jeremičkom, najmirisnijim cvetom planine. Posle te crvene faze počinje žuta, obojena najviše  ivandanjskom travom od koje seljaci prave venčići i kite kolibe. Sa letom počinje najrazigranija šarena faza, i traje sve do početka avgusta, kada se kose bogate livade i balira seno. Ovde raste narcis, jaglika, vresak, šafran, zlatni šumski ljiljan, lincura, bosanska i jadranska perunika. Planinom su se rasuli plodovi šumskih jagoda, divlje maline, kupine i najznačajnije borovnice, bogate vitaminima, gvožđem i taninom. Borovnica raste kao žbunje na prostoru Povlena, ali je najviše ima u šumama bukve. Povlen krase biljke različite upotrebne vrednosti za čoveka. Neke su ukrasne, neke su hrana i lek, a neke otrovne. 

Lekovite biljke koje se mogu naći na Povlenu su sremuš, lazarkinja, kopitnjak, hajdučica, sedmolist, virak, petrovac, bela rada, rusomača, zvončić, ženetrga, pavit, vasiljak, mrkva, naprstak, šumska mlečka, mlečika, rastavić, suručica, dobričica, broćika obična, ivanjsko cveće, živa trava, kantarion, oman, udovica njivska, volovsko oko, barska nana, lucerka, vija, vranilova trava, gladiš, ženska bokvica, petoprsnica, srednja bokvica, srčenjak, siljevina, ljutić, štavalj, šipurak, dinjica, kišjakinja, osak, čistac, maslačak, podubica, majkina dušica, crvena detelina, kopriva, dan i noć, zmijina trava, divlja i obična ljubičica. Lekovite i otrovne biljke koje srećemo na livadama Povlena su kozlac, rasopas, žutilovka, kukurek, mrazovac... Kukuta je više otrovna nego lekovita. Cela biljka i plod neprijatno zaudaraju, naročito leti oko podne kada sunce pripeče. Antički filozof Sokrat osuđen je na smrt ispijanjem otrova od Kokute. Popio je pehar pun otrova lako i bez gorčine, a prisutne zamolio da ne plaču i ćute, da bi mogao ”umirati u pobožnoj tišini”